Archive for February 2022

Relevant and Up to Date Drug Development Courses from Biotech Primer

Certificate in Drug Discovery and Development - College of Pharmacy

Effective and safe drug treatments rank high among scientific advancements that have changed people’s lives over the past decades. Cures for infectious diseases, as well as treatments for chronic illnesses like cardiovascular illnesses, central nervous system illnesses, diabetes, and incurable cancer, have drastically changed people’s lives. 

But society is still in the infancy of truly effective treatments. The complexity of diseases, hence the reason for necessary treatments, increases drastically with aging populations. Medications are only partially efficient and effective, sometimes can even cause adverse reactions.

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Moreover, medication costs start to place a significant burden on a lot of patients. Recent developments in understanding the human genome – all genes combined – have shown a lot of new insights into human illnesses. People often read about groundbreaking findings on the genetic and molecular causes of illnesses. 

Invariably, experts add that these findings surely will lead to groundbreaking novel treatments of untreatable diseases. But we have not seen the flood of new drugs as promised by these profound developments, a direct result of the intricacies of biological systems – human beings in particular. Whereas new details come to light at a blinding speed, our capacity to interpret results, as well as translate these results into effective treatments, are lagging behind. 

Here lie the excitement and promise for undergrads who want to take part in a new stage for medicine. The entire industry relies on the timely development and discovery of new drugs – a growing and outstanding opportunity for new and young scientists. 

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Drug Discovery 101 - Biotech Primer WEEKLY

Clinical evaluation, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics

There is a good chance that medications that successfully interact with target proteins in vitro will never reach their intended site in the body since it is not absorbed, removed from the intended tissue, or is rapidly excreted and metabolized. 

Research of these procedures is known as pharmacokinetics – for instance, what our body does to the medication. In contrast, pharmacodynamics centers on what the medication does to our body – especially the magnitude, time-course, and nature of the drug toxicity and effect. These industries combine mathematical modeling with pharmacological and biological sciences. 

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic modeling is a common phrase that has a lot of impact on drug treatment because people can strive to predict medicinal response, adverse events, and optimal dosage. Moreover, it has revealed differences among every patient, alerting people to the need to individualize every dosage regimen. Therefore, pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic modeling is a complex part of the drug development courses and germane to new cure approval by the Food and Drug Agency.

Formulation design and delivery systems

Imagine people have a promising medication candidate, but testing in various animals reveals little to no activity at all. One issue may be that chemicals do not even get into the user’s body or fail to reach the action area. Alternatively, an efficient, effective, and safe treatment plan might need brief applications with immediate reversal of effects like anesthesia, pulsatile delivery like some hormone therapies, or drug delivery over a couple of days like birth control. 

In diabetes treatments, one needs to provide insulin at high levels for a certain time period. It is a challenging task for a lot of individuals. Lastly, targeted medicinal delivery to tumors – and not to healthy tissues – is the main goal of chemotherapy for cancer patients.

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Three Principles For Revolutionizing Orphan Drug Development

Clinical evaluation, pharmacogenomics, and pharmacogenetics

The first awareness of the genetic difference in a person’s response to unfamiliar chemicals started in the 1930s. It shows that some people cannot taste bitter substances. Over the past decades, this idea has quickly widened to include various responses to medicinal therapy – already alluded to in the previous paragraph. 

The pharmacogenetic field has emerged with detailed information on genetic alteration in drug-metabolizing enzymes – a primary cause of different drug responses. The significance of genetic differences is underlined by the assertion that changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes may have a significant effect on its adverse reaction – a serious health issue and one of the leading causes of death in the country. 

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Recently, this industry has widened drastically, reflecting the idea that medications interact with different proteins in our body, every one of them potentially subject to various genetic variations. That is why people need to consider a lot of genes that could have an effect on the outcome of diseases and medication response – leading to Pharmacogenomics. The goal is to discover a primary genetic variation in a society that predisposes to illnesses and permit one to choose the right treatment plan.

Medical Discoveries That Have Changed Healthcare

Bruce Stanko has spent several years in the medical supplies industry and has seen a great deal of products used regularly. It’s amazing to think at one point these never existed. Mr. Stanko also spends time researching the healthcare industry in general to see the latest and greatest. These are some of the most noteworthy medical discoveries that changed healthcare. 


The X-ray changed how physicians diagnose patients. It was the basis of computed tomography (CT) scans. And, though the technology is different, the discovery of an X-ray made way for other imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging, more commonly known as an MRI. 

An X-ray uses radiation emitted into your body. Different parts of your body absorb it at different rates based on density. Since bones are denser, they absorb more radiation and appear on the scan. Additionally, fluid in the lungs, a tumor, and various other issues can be detected using an X-ray. 


Before the stethoscope, physicians listened to a patient’s heart or lungs by placing their ear on the patients’ chest. While this worked, it didn’t pick up on all the problems. Not to mention, doctors couldn’t hear patients with a higher fat concentration’s heartbeats. 

As a result, one physician created a tube that amplified sound to listen to the lungs and heart rate of patients. Bruce Stanko would like to note that while the initial one was wooden, it paved the way for those used today. 


Bruce Stanko would like you to take a moment to think of all the infections you visit a physician to treat and receive antibiotics for, including Lyme disease, bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, and urinary tract infections, to name a few. Tuberculosis was once a major problem for people, but antibiotics reduced the death rate significantly. 

Cardiac Defibrillator 

Prior to 1947, defibrillation was known but not used. In this year, though, one surgeon used defibrillation during a surgery and saved a patient’s life. Today, Bruce Stanko would like to note that defibrillation is commonly used today and has saved countless lives by resetting the heart back to a normal rhythm.  


Could you imagine having a major surgery without the use of anesthesia? Before 1846, anesthesia didn’t exist. However, John Collins Warren used it for the first time that year to keep a patient comfortable during surgery. Through the use of anesthesia, various life-saving and vital surgeries can be performed that could have never been done prior to the introduction of anesthesia. 


Diabetes is a common problem that involves your body’s cells being resistant to insulin, or your body not producing insulin. Before 1922, the US had no concept of the use of insulin before Elliott Joslin. Imagine the number of people that could go on to live normal lives without the risk of heart and kidney problems as well as amputations from uncontrolled diabetes. 

Nowadays, you probably think little about these revolutionary medical inventions. However, Bruce Stanko realizes the importance of so many medical discoveries, especially as a medical supply distributor.